geoscience /

22 Articles

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UNDERSTANDING BENDING IN ROCKS: FOLD ANALYSIS

  admin    August 18, 2021    0

A geological fold is a bend in rock strata that deflects the surface sideways altering the amount and direction of dip. Fold analysis allows the proper characterisation of the fold.

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ORIENTATION OF ROCKS: MEASURING DIP AND STRIKE

  admin    August 18, 2021    0

Find a good surface that is representative of the overall dip of the plane to measure. Determine the general direction of dip pouring fluid over the bedding plane to see which way it runs. In some cases it may be necessary to smooth out the variations on the surface by placing a notebook or clipboard on the bedding plane, making sure to avoid irregularity.

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BLACK GOLD CHRONICLES 1: GEOLOGICAL DISTRIBUTION OF PETROLEUM

  admin    August 18, 2021    0

The distribution of Hydrocarbons (HCs) within a basin depends on a number of factors notably the type of source material and the physicochemical history of the basin. Factors responsible for the distribution of HCs can be divided into two parts; syn and post accumulation factors depending on when they come to play.

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TRUE ROCK PRISONERS: PALAEONTOLOGY IN A NUTSHELL

  admin    August 18, 2021    0

Palaeontology in a broad sense is the study of the remains or traces of the activities of once living organisms called fossils which have been stored in rocks through natural processes. Palaeontology can generally be sub-divided into;

Micropaleontology, the study of macroscopic fossil such as dinosaurs, fossilized tree stumps etc.
Micropaleontology concerned with the study microscopic (micro) fossils. The term is sometime associated to the study of mineral walled microfossils such as foraminifera.

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CHEMICAL BIG GUYS: HEAVY METALS IN THE ENVIRONMENT

  admin    August 18, 2021    0

Heavy metal is any metallic chemical element that has a relatively high density and with high toxicity, even at low concentrations. Examples include: mercury (Hg), Cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), chromium (Cr), thallium (Tl), and lead (Pb) Cobalt (Co), Nickel (Ni), Antimony (An), Vanadium (V), Zinc (Zn), Platinum (Pt), Palladium (Pd), Rhodium.

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GEOLOGISTS PRIDE: DIAMOND EXPLORATION AND MINING

  admin    August 18, 2021    0

Diamond which has its name from the Indian word “ADAMAS” meaning eternal is a high value commodity which price increase with size because big sized diamonds are rare and are worked easily. There exist many gemstones that have similar properties to diamond such as density and colour, hence making diamond difficult to identify properly. However, the hardness of diamond is unmatchable and constitutes its most distinctive property.

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THE METAL OF CYPRUS: ECONOMIC GEOLOGY OF COPPER

  admin    August 18, 2021    0

Element Copper (Cu) is a pinkish-orange colour element found in Group 11, Atomic Number 29, d-block, Mass 63.546 particularly useful in all aspects of electrical appliances. Geologically, copper occurs in Carbon bearing shale (Congo and Zambia), commonly as the copper porphyry deposit type as well as massive sulphides deposits.

Copper porphyry largely occurs in Chile with the biggest world deposit located in Chuquicamata. Other deposits include the Bingham (USA), Grasberg (Indonesia), Oyu Tolgio (Mongolia).

COMPUTERIZED DATA MANAGEMENT IN MINERAL EXPLORATION

  admin    August 18, 2021    0

Computerized data management is one of the major developments in mineral exploration. The flow of large amount of data generated by modern instrumentation, as well as speeding up and improving decision making in mineral exploration can be achieve using computerized softwares (Moon and Whateley 2006). However mineral exploration data can be handled using either the Geographical Informations Systems (GIS) for early stage exploration data, or mining-specific packages designed to enable mine planning and resource calculations.