A form of rapid mass movement in which loose soil, rock and sometimes organic matter combine with water to form slurry that flows downslope. They have been informally and inappropriately called mudslides due to tha large quantity of fine material that they may be present in the flow.
This program has been developed to enable the rapid calculation of the ash fall from a volcanic eruption. It is designed for Civil defense used when it is feared that a damaging volcanic eruption might be about to occur, or if an eruption has actually started. The information required about the eruption is the site, time of the eruption, and the height of the eruption cloud.
Chi square distribution is a measure of the discrepancy between theoretical and observed results using statistical hypothesis testing procedures. Statistical hypothesis testing is a decision-making process for evaluating claims about a population. For example, a geologist based on his/her knowledge might claim that all the rocks around the Mt. Cameroon contain olivine. He/she can decide to go to the field to evaluate his/her claim thereby comparing theoretical and observed parameters.
UNESCO International Glossary of Hydrology defines “Flood” as follows;
Rise, usually brief, in the water level in a stream to a peak from which the water level recedes at a slower rate.
Relatively high flow as measured by stage height or discharge.
The Glossary also defines flooding as an overflowing by water of the normal confines of a stream or other body of water, or accumulation of water by drainage over areas that are not normally submerged.
Radar estimation of rainfall is widely used and is not strictly “emerging”. Radar provides
an aerial indication of rainfall, and so provides a better distributed measurement than from point
rain gauge measurements, with the output lending itself well to use in grid based models.
There are a number of limitations in measurement accuracy such as range, attenuation of
signal and calibration, but second-generation radar instruments, particularly Doppler radars,
have overcome some of the attenuation problems. Smaller radar instruments (C and X-band
radars), sometimes portable, are useful for local monitoring, especially in urban areas. The
combination of radar with NWP used in short lead time forecasting models has resulted in a
An overall purpose of factor analysis is to summarize data so that relationships and patterns can be easily interpreted and understood. It is normally used to regroup variables into a limited set of clusters based on shared variance. Hence, it helps to isolate constructs and concepts.
According to Child, 2006 factor analysis uses mathematical procedures for the overview of interrelated measures to determine patterns in a set of variables. From Harman, 1976 the