Ground penetrating radar (GPR) is a high resolution, field-portable geophysical technique that produces graphic sections of subsurface ground structure. Typical site investigation applications include void detection, accurate location of buried obstructions and mapping subsurface soil and rock interfaces and defining buried archaeological structures.
Principal Component Analysis (PCA) can be thought of as a method of dimension reduction. It is a set of variables analysed to reveal major dimensions of variation. Original data set in PCA can be replaced by a new and smaller data set with minimum loss of information. This reveals the relationship among these variables. (IBM SPSS)
Principal component analysis seeks the standard linear combination of the original variables which have proximal variance. It makes use of a few linear combinations which can be used to summarize the data; losing as little information as possible in the process.
The size of individual particles has an important influence on the behavior of soils. It is a general practice to classify the soils into four broad groups, namely; gravel, sand, silt size and clay size.
Classification based on particle size is of immense value in the case of coarse-grained soils rather than fine-grained soils because the behavior of such soils depends mainly on the particle size, whereas fine-grained soils depend on the plasticity characteristics. Some of the classification systems based on particle size alone are:
Geophysics is the application of physics principles to the study of the Earth.
The Earth is comprised of materials that have different physical properties. Clay and granite, for example, have different densities, acoustic velocities, elastic moduli, electrical conductivities, magnetic susceptibilities, and dielectric constants.
Find a good surface that is representative of the overall dip of the plane to measure. Determine the general direction of dip pouring fluid over the bedding plane to see which way it runs. In some cases it may be necessary to smooth out the variations on the surface by placing a notebook or clipboard on the bedding plane, making sure to avoid irregularity.